Makalu Barun National park and conservation area is situated in the Sankhuwasabha and Solukhumbu districts,bordered by the Arun River on the east, Sagarmatha (Mt.Everest) National Park on the west, the Nepal-Tibet border on the north and Saune Danda (ridge) to the south. The Park covers 2,330 sq. kms.This is the only protected area in Nepal with designation of a Strict Nature Reserve. It has some of the richest and most unique pockets of plants and animals in Nepal,elsewhere lost to spreading human habitation.Stepping up the slopes are a series of vegetation zones starting with tropical sal forest below 1,000 m. elevation subtropical schima-castanopsis forest at 1,000-2000 m. fir, birch, rhododendron forests in the sub-alpine(3,000-4,000 m); and herbs, grasses and rhododendron/juniper shrubsin the alpine pas trues (4,000-5,000 m). There are 47 varieties of orchids, 67 species of bamboos,15 oaks including Arkhoulo, 86 species of fodder trees and 48 species of primrose. Over 400 species of birds have been sighted in the Makalu-Barun area, including two species never before seen in Nepal the spotted wrenbabbler and the olive ground warbler. Wildlife includes the endangered red panda, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, clouded leopard and possibly snow leopard, in addition to more substantial populations of ghoral, thar, wild boar, barking deer, Himalayan marmot and weasel, common langur monkey and the serow. The Arun river system contains 84 varieties of fish.
Due to its unique altitudinal gradient, the skyline is panorama of rugged Himalayan peaks, including Mt. Makalu(8463m) the fifth highest mountain in the world and the fourth highest, Mt. Chamlang(7319m), Mt. Baruntse(7129m) and Mera Peak(6654m).
Makalu-Barun area falls in the eastern Himalayan climatic regime where monsoon starts early (June) and stays longer than in west Nepal (until late September). The climate is generally described as monsoon type, where more than 70% of the precipitation occurs between June and September. Pre- monsoon rain is common during the month of April and May, an important factor in biomes production. No reliable records of climatic data represent the entire area. Great variations in temperature and precipitation can be expected due to extreme difference in altitude, slope and aspect within the area.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Recognized for its tremendous diversity of plants, animals and people, the area contains 25 species of rhododendron, 47 types of orchids, and 56 rare or endangered plants. Snow leopards, red panda, musk deer, wild boar, are among the wildlife found here.
Most trails are quite rocky, and become slippery after rain or overnight freezes. Until April or May, winter snows generally stay on the passes and on high altitude trails approaching shershong.One particular hazardous area is the trail between Mumbuk and Yangle Kharka, an area of unstable and dangerous Rock fall. Trekkers in this area should move quickly and watch for falling rocks. Mountain sickness can also be a serious risk if elevation gains are rapid without proper acclimatisation.
HOW TO GET THERE
There are daily flights to Tumlingtar from Kathmandu and Biratnagar to Tumlingtar could also be reached from Biratnagar/Dharan. It is a 6/7hrs drive to Hile and 3 day trek to Tumlingtar from there.You can also reach Inkhu valley of Makalu Barun from Lukla and Phaplu. There is regular flight from Kathmandu to lukla/phaplu.
Campsites have been designated along the trek route. The purpose of this designation of campsite is to regulate the impact on vegetation, aesthetic, landscapes damage and waste management etc. Seven campsites have been designated in ( Khongma 3500 m, Dobato 3500m, Yangle 3570m, Neghe 3700m, Langmale 4100m, Shershong 4600m) and dragmaru. Tourist.
The Makalu-Barun National Park and Buffer Zone headquarter is located at Murmidanda. Seduwa. A kerosene depot at Makalu Tourism Association
as well as private lodgers in Tashingaou sells kerosene to all trekking groups including the porters. Makalu Tourism Association rent kerosene stoves and blankets for porters. The trekking group has to provide the facilities to the porters.There are four shelters built for the use of porters while they are inside the Park. Neither the staff nor the porters should make fire inside the shelter as it is only for sleeping purpose.