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GeographyKnow Nepal

Geography of Nepal

Records mention the Gopalas and Mahishapalas believed to have been the earliest rulers with their capital at Matatirtha, the south-west corner of the Kathmandu Valley. From the 7th or 8th Century B.C. the Kirantis are said to have ruled the valley. Their famous King Yalumber is even mentioned in the epic, ‘Mahabharat’.

Story Highlights

  • Nepal, country of Asia, lying along the southern slopes of the Himalayan mountain ranges. It is a landlocked country located between India to the east, south, and west and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north.
  • In 1923, Britain recognized the absolute independence of Nepal. Between 1846 and 1951, the country was ruled by the Rana family, which always held the office of prime minister. In 1951, however, the king took over all power and proclaimed a constitutional monarchy. Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah became king in 1955.
  • The history of Nepal has been influenced by its position in the Himalaya and its two neighbours, modern day India and Tibet. It is a multiethnic, multiracial, multicultural, multi religious, and multilingual country.
  • Nepal is a sovereign independent kingdom situated on the southern slopes of the mid-Himalayas, the formidable range of eternal shows. It is located between 28.3949° N, 84.1240° E.

Nepal lies between China in the north and India to the south. It is spread over an area of 147,181 sq. kms and geographically, divided into three regions- the Himalayan, Hilly, and Terai with altitude varying from 70 to 8,848 meters. The Himalayan region occupies 15 percent of the total area of the country. The northernmost region of the country is divided into 16 districts. Covered with snow capped mountains in the northern part, the altitude of the region ranges from 3500m to 8,848 meters. Some of Nepals most beautiful animals and plants are found in this region, although vegetation is sparse and almost nil in higher altitudes. People depend on trade with Tibet and income from works as labor, guides and porters for survival. Sherpas and Tamangs are the dominant inhabitants of this region.

The hilly region falls between the Himalayan and the Terai region. Constituting mainly of the Mahabharat, Siwalik and Chure ranges, the region is divided into 39 districts, and spreads over 68 percent of the total land mass. The altitude ranges between 600 to 3500 meters. Because of ideal temperature and climate, the region sees a large concentration of flora and is home to many exotic animals including spotted leopard, barking deer, Himalayan black bear, and many other species. Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Gurung, and many other ethnic groups reside in the region.

The Terai or the plains covers 17 percent of the area of Nepal and is the most populated region. It is the industrial and agriculture centre of the country. Because of the fertile lands, many people are engaged in agriculture. Terai is known as the granary store of Nepal due to its plain terrace.

Nepal has always been an independent and sovereign county with glorious history, culture and tradition that date back to time immemorial. Before the campaign for national integration was launched by Kind Prithivi Narayan Shah the Great, Kathmandu Valley was ruled by the Malla Kings, whose contributions to art and culture are indeed great and unique. In 1768 A.D, the Shah dynasty ascended the throne of unified Nepal. After Prithivi Narayan Shah ascended the throne of Gorkha events in the history took a different turn. He conquered various warring principalities and laid the foundation of the Modern Nepal. After Prithivi Narayan Shah, the campaign of unification was given continuity by his younger son Bahadur Shah and was launched once again by the Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa, “The 1st Prime Minister of Nepal”. However, the expansion came to a halt when Nepal came into conflict with British India Company and signed the treaty of Sugauli in March 1816 AD. Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa Another crucial chapter of history began after the emergence of Janga Bahadur Rana to power in 1846 AD. He established himself as the most powerful Prime Minster of the country or as a “de-facto ruler and made the prime Minister ship as hereditary. The revolution of 1950 brought an end to the autocratic Rana regime and democratic system was introduced. Multiparty parliamentary system was practiced for some years but the system came to an end when King Mahendra imposed party less Panchayat system in 1960 AD.

The democratic movement of 1990 reinstated the multi-party democratic constitution in the country on 9th November 1990. Now Nepal is a stalwart of global peace and disbarment. Nepal is a member of the UNO and the founder members of South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The entire family of King Birendra was massacred in June 2001 popularly Known and Royal Massacre 2001. Prince Dipendra was crowned as King while on coma later he took his last breath lying in hospital bed. Gyanendra Shah late King Birendra’s brother was coronet as the King of Nepal. In 2006, a decade-long People’s Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal signed a peace accord, dethroned King Gyanendra Shah and established Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.


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Kulendra Baral

Kulendra Baral is a travel and tourism specialist in Nepal. In 2004, Nepal Visitors was established and promoting the Nepal Tourism. Nepal Visitors is a travel information provider side where Nepalese travel related agencies are affiliated

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