Parsa Wildlife Reserve occupies parts of Chitwan, Makawanpur, Parsa and Bara districts in central Nepal. The reserve headquarters is situated at Adabar on the Hetauda-Birgunj highway and the Reserve covers 499 sq. kms. and established in 1984.
The dominant landscape of the reserve, the Churiya hills ranging from 750m.to 950m. run east-west of the reserve. The reserve has sub-tropical monsoon climate. The forest is composed of tropical to subtropical forest types with sal constituting 90% of the vegetation.In the Churiya hills Chir pine grows and along the stream and rivers Khair, Sissoo with silk cotton tree occur. Sabai grass a commercially important grass species grows well in the southern face of Churiya hill. The reserve supports a good population of resident wild elephant, tiger,leopard, sloth bear, gaur, blue bull, wild dog. Other common animals are sambar, chital, hogdeer, barking deer, langur, striped hyena, ratel, palm civet, jungle cat etc. There are nearly 300 species of birds in the reserve. Giant hombill, peafowl,red jungle fowl, flycatchers, woodpeckers etc. are few other common birds found in the reserve. Many kinds of snakes like king cobra, common cobra, krait, rat snake, pythons are found in the reserve due to hot tropical climate.
Winter (October-December) provide pleasant temperatures with clear skies. Night time temperatures can drop to 0°C. During spring (January-March) temperatures rise and water becomes scarce. During summer (April-June) the days become hot and humid with temperatures rising up to 40°C. Monsoon (July-September) brings cooling rains.
The soil is primarily composed of gravel and conglomerates, making it susceptible to erosion.The hills present a very rugged face with numerous gullies and dry streambeds. As the foothills are very porous, water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about 15 km. from the hills base. The Churia hill range from 750m to 950m running east to west.
FLORA AND FAUNA
The forests are mainly composed of tropical and subtropical species. Sal forests compose about 90 percent of the Reserve’s vegetation. Along the banks of the rivers, riverine forests are found containing species like Khair and Silk cotton tree. In the north-eastern part of the Reserve, at higher altitudes, Sal and Pine forests occur. On the southern slope of the Siwalik hills, the forests are dominated by pine. Sabai grass a commercially important species, grows well on the southern face of the Churia hills.
The Reserve supports good populations of endangered species such as wild Asian elephant,Royal Bengal tiger, sloth bear, and leopard.blue bull, wild dog , sambar deer, spotted deer,hog deer, barding deer, langur, rhesus macaques,striped hyena, jungle cat, and palm civet.
The Reserve also provides habitat for more than 500 species of birds. For example white breasted kingfisher, paradise flycatcher,large racquet-tailed drongo, golden backed woodpecker,are some of the common sights. Giant hornbill,one of the endangered bird species is found here. The Reserve is also famous for reptiles and different kinds of snakes including common cobra, common and banded krait, rock python and King cobra.
PLACES OF INTEREST
Near the Reserve headquarters is a machan (view tower) that provides excellent opportunities for game viewing. Kailash Bhata is atop a hill, and is of religious importance. It houses two small temples (Dugdeswor Mahadev) paying homage to the Hindu gods of Shiva and Parvati. Also, one can have a panoramic view of the lush terai forest from here. An elephant camp is located near Amlekhgunj. Jungle rides can be arranged from the Reserve headquarters, which is the best way to get a close view of wildlife.
There is a small guesthouse with four rooms at the headquarters. There is also a teahouse that can provide tea, snacks, and Nepali food. Hetauda and Birgunj are about an hour’s drive.Modest shops have also come up near Pathlaiya which is a walking distance from Headquarters. Make sure to bring a first-aid kit containing medicines for intestinal problems.
HOW TO GET THERE
The Reserve is easily accessible. The Kathmandu – Hetauda – Birgunj highway passes by the entrance gate. Bus can be availed from Kathmandu. It takes six to seven hours to get there. A flight to Simara takes about 15-20 minutes, from where it hardly takes 15 minutes to reach the Reserve headquarter by vehicle.